# Comparing Packings

## The Problem

Imagine we have generated two sets of points, like the following: Now we want some pairing of points on the left with points on the right, so that they “match up”. More specifically, we want a pairing that minimizes the total distance between paired points.

#### Table Form

number in A number in B
1 5
2 2
3 4
4 1
5 3

#### Image Form ### The Question

How do we find that pairing such that we minimize the sum of distances?

### Mathematics

Let us define an ordering tuple to be a tuple $T:\left\{ i\in T\forall i\in\left\{ 1\ldots N \right\} \right\}$. So $\left(1,2,3 \right)$ and $\left(3,1,2,4\right)$ are ordering tuples, but $\left(3,1,2,3 \right)$ is not.

Now suppose we have two sets of points, $\vec r_i$ and $\vec s_i$, with $1 \le i \le N$.

We now want to find the ordering tuple $T$ that minimizes

where for each $i$, we have a location $\vec{r}_i$ and a “pairing” numbered $T_i$ at a location $\vec{s}_{T_i}$.

## The Solution

### Step 1: What does a solution even look like?

A solution is an ordering tuple, which in code can just be a list. In my code, I just use a wrapper around vec<uint>, with a distance. Here is a simpler version of it:

The distance (or distance squared, distsq) is simply $d^2$ from above.

Below, I’m going to use the form ([2, 0, 1], 10.3), where that corresponds to $\left\{A_0 \rightarrow B_2, A_1 \rightarrow B_0, A_2 \rightarrow B_1 \right\}$, with a total distance squared $d^2 = 10.3$.

### Step 2: Djikstra’s Algorithm

If you look at the form of the solution, you’ll notice that it has a lot in common with a path-finding algorithm: we want a list of “nodes” to visit, and the more nodes we visit, the greater our distance — $d^2$ is monotonically increasing. This isn’t quite a path-finding algorithm, because we want to visit all nodes (i.e. assign every particle in $A$ to a particle in $B$), so its close to the Traveling Salesman problem, but we can still use a similar solution.

([], 0.0)


Then we take out the first element, and “expand” it to try assigning every possible particle in $B$ to the particle 0 in $A$, and put those back in our Queue, keeping it sorted by distance squared:

(, 1.0),
(, 9.0),
(, 16.0),
(, 25.0)


Now we repeat the process with the first element in our Queue:

([3, 2], 2.0),
(, 9.0),
(, 16.0),
([3, 0], 17.0),
(, 25.0),
([3, 1], 29.0)


If we keep doing this, we might end up something like this:

([3, 2, 0, 1], 3.0),
(, 9.0),
(, 16.0),
([3, 0], 17.0),
(, 25.0),
([3, 1], 29.0),
([3, 2, 1], 38.0)


And now we know the best pairing is $\left\{A_0 \rightarrow B_3, A_1 \rightarrow B_2, A_2 \rightarrow B_0, A_3 \rightarrow B_1 \right\}$, with $d^2 = 3$. Conveniently enough, the remainder of our Queue is basically a proof that any other pairing would have a greater $d^2$ — for example, any pairing including $A_0 \rightarrow B_1$ has $d^2 \ge 9$, so we don’t have to investigate all 6 ways that could be the case.

## Extra Difficulties

### Translations

Now let’s imagine our particles might not only be “unpaired”, but possibly also shifted – so now we want to find not just the best pairing, but the best (pairing, translation) to minimize $d^2$: We now want to find the ordering tuple $T$ and vector $\vec \delta$ that minimizes

It turns out, this is simple: you subtract off the “center of mass” difference:

So we use the algorithm above, but add in that calculation first before calculating $d^2$.

### Periodic Boundary Conditions

In my case, we often want to deal with particles in a box with periodic boundary conditions, i.e. a box where a particle that disappears on one side appears on the other. If we still have to calculate the minimal (pairing, translation), we now have a problem: you can’t use the center of mass trick above, because there is no well-defined center-of-mass like that with periodic boundary conditions.

To make a long story short, you can instead calculate $d^2$ in the following way, that is independent of translations:

where $\ominus_{\vec{L}}$ means “shortest distance given periodic boundary conditions in a box of shape $\vec{L}$”. In practice, this is defined like so:

Proving that the $d^2$ defined here for the periodic boundary conditions is equivalent to the previous one is well outside the scope of this post, but for anyone interested, see here, or the original LyX file.

### Rotations

Now imagine that however you are generating these sets, sometimes they appear as rotated versions of each other, and possibly even a mirror.

This is also fairly simple to handle:

• Include in the Solution class a marker representing a rotation; for 2D, this only means adding an unsigned int in the range 0–3 for rotations, or 0–8 for rotations and flips.

• Include some code that handles the rotations while calculating the distances squared.

• When you initialize the queue, include an empty pairing for each rotation and flip. That way, each rotation and flip is already covered, and “expanding” only need add new points. Since an “expansion” doesn’t have to ever rotate, the distance are still monotonically increasing.

I have code that handles this here.